The Australian marine ecosystem is of paramount importance due to its rich biodiversity, supporting a vast array of unique species found nowhere else on the planet. It plays a critical role in maintaining global biodiversity, regulating climate patterns, and supporting livelihoods through fisheries and tourism. From the Western to the Eastern coastlines, Australia is home of many UNESCO World Heritage Sites including Shark Bay, Ningaloo Coast, until the most famous Great Barrier Reef, all serving as a crucial habitats for countless marine species providing invaluable ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration, oxygen production, and coastal protection. Despite covering less than 0.1% of the ocean floor, coral reefs are home to around 25% of all marine species. They serve as nurseries for fish, offering shelter and food for juvenile marine organisms essentials to the sustainability of fisheries in Australia and beyond. The interconnectedness of species within the reef ecosystem highlights its role in maintaining the delicate balance of marine life.Seagrass also holds profound importance in Australia’s marine ecosystem, playing a pivotal role in maintaining the health and balance of coastal environments. Beyond their ecological significance, seagrasses, mangroves, and salt marshes helps to enhance carbon storage and nutrient cycling. They absorb carbon dioxide from the water and atmosphere, helping mitigate climate change by acting as carbon sinks. For Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, the oceans, coastlines, and marine life represent a vital aspect of their identity and connection to Country, intertwining with their cultural heritage, spiritual beliefs, sustenance, and traditional practices for thousands of years. Climate change and human impact have significantly altered Australia’s marine environment, posing substantial threats to its delicate ecosystems, biodiversity, and the livelihoods of coastal communities. The consequences of these changes manifest in various ways, including rising sea temperatures, ocean acidification, habitat destruction, pollution, overfishing, and the degradation of coastal areas. These threats not only jeopardize the ecological health of the marine environment but also directly affect the cultural, spiritual, and socio-economic practices of Aboriginal peoples.In-fact marine environment has been a crucial source of sustenance for Aboriginal people, providing a rich array of seafood such as fish, shellfish, turtles, dugongs, and crustaceans. Traditional fishing practices, passed down through generations, are deeply rooted in Indigenous culture, encompassing sustainable methods that maintain the ecological balance of marine ecosystems while ensuring the continuity of food resources.Stories, songs, dances of the Dreamtime (the spiritual and cultural framework that underpins Indigenous belief systems, connecting people to ancestral stories and teachings) narratives often revolve around the sea, its creatures, and the creation stories associated with these environments. Australia is recognized among global leader in marine science and research, contributing significantly to advancements in understanding marine ecosystems, biodiversity, climate change impacts, and conservation efforts. Several institutions and initiatives across the country are at the forefront of cutting-edge marine science, making it a key player in studies and protecting the world’s oceans. Preserving and conserving Australia’s marine ecosystem is not only vital for the country but also holds global significance. Collaboration among governments, scientists, Indigenous communities, and stakeholders is essential to ensure the long-term health and survival of Australia’s marine ecosystem for future generations to cherish and benefit from their ecological, economic, and cultural value.